Members of the Scheduled Castes (formerly known as “Untouchables”; groups that legally maintain a low status within the Indian caste structure) as well as various indigenous people designated as Scheduled Tribes make up the population of Jharkhand. Huh. Makes about two-fifths. The main indigenous groups are the Santhals, Oraons (Kurukhs), Mundas, Kharias and Hos, who together form the vast majority of the tribal people. The remaining three-fifths are made up of non-scheduled people, who have a better social status under the traditional Indian social structure.
In Jharkhand, Hindus form the bulk of the population. Upper castes (Brahmins, Bhumihars, Rajputs and Kayasthas), large and diverse groups of lower castes (such as Yadavs, Kurmis and Banias), and scheduled castes make up the Hindu population (specifically, Chamars or cobblers). , Dusadh and Mushar). Although Christianity is important among the people of Munda, Kharia and Oraon, Hinduism is practiced by most of the tribal communities. Some scheduled tribes, especially those of the Ho group, practice indigenous religions. The state also has a significant Muslim minority.
The Indo-European family of languages is the most widely spoken language in Jharkhand. The most famous are Hindi, Bhojpuri, Maithili and Magadhi, which are Bihari languages, and Urdu, which is primarily spoken by Muslims. Some tribal languages, such as Munda, Santhal and Ho, are Austroasiatic, but other indigenous tribes, such as the Oraon, use Dravidian languages.
Economy of Jharkahnd
The administration of Jharkhand has maintained an aggressive course of economic planning and development since it achieved statehood in the early twenty-first century. Priority sectors include information technology, transport and infrastructure, agriculture and local craft production. Meanwhile, several industrial area development authorities, centered on Adityapur (near Jamshedpur), Bokaro and Ranchi, have been tasked with land acquisition, infrastructure improvement and public utility development, among other things, under their jurisdiction.
Transportation in Jharkhand
Despite the fact that the road network has been continuously expanding since the state’s inception, almost half the villages in Jharkhand are still covered by all-weather roads. However, several national highways, notably the historic Grand Trunk Road, pass through the state (one of the oldest roads in India). The Chota Nagpur Plateau, where the Allied efforts led to many improvements during World War II, has the largest road service.
Jharkhand passes through the Kolkata-Delhi rail route, which was established in 1864. Ranchi, Bokaro, Dhanbad and Jamshedpur all have extensive freight traffic with railways. In addition, all coal mines in west-central Jharkhand and ore loading facilities are provided at Lohardaga. Ranchi is served by regularly scheduled flights. Waterways, which were earlier the main means of transport in Jharkhand, have now lost their importance.
Agriculture in Jharkhand
Jharkhand has rich terrain and a temperate climate with abundant surface and groundwater, all of which have contributed to the state’s strong agricultural industry. Raising cattle for meat, dairy products and wool has been highlighted in the state’s agricultural development plans. A selective sheep-breeding program was conducted in Chatra town in the north-west, and wool collection centers were set up in East Singhbhum district to increase the quality and production of mutton and wool. Most of the state’s goat rearing is done in the northeastern districts of Dumka, Deoghar and Godda, although the state also includes goat farms in Sahibganj, Chatra and Ranchi. Pig farms can be found at many places across the state including Kanke (in Ranchi district), Seraikela (near Dhanbad) and Jamshedpur.
Minerals in Jharkhand
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is the richest mineral region in India, accounting for a large part (by value) of the country’s mineral production. Jharkhand produces almost all of the country’s copper, chit (used to make heat-resistant porcelain), pyrite (used to generate sulfuric acid), and phosphate, as well as bauxite (an aluminum source). produces. Produces a significant amount of mica, kaolin and. other clays, and iron ore. Most of these minerals are mined in East and West Singhbhum districts. Coal, on the other hand, accounts for the majority of Jharkhand’s mineral production. Major coalfields, mainly in the Damodar river valley of eastern Jharkhand, supply most of India’s coking coal.
Education in Jharkahnd
The development measures of Jharkhand have given priority to education. Literacy rates have been rising rapidly, from less than 10% in the 1990s to over 50% by the end of the century. Jharkhand has several institutions, the most famous of which are Ranchi University (1960), Birsa Agricultural University in Kanke (1981), Sido Kanhu Murmu University in Dumka (1992) and Vinoba Bhave University (1992) in Hazaribagh. There are many universities and research institutes operating in engineering, labor relations, law, medicine and other fields. Indian School of Mines (1926), Birsa Institute of Technology (1949), and Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (1950), all in Dhanbad; Xavier Labor Relations Institute in Jamshedpur (1949); and Birla Institute of Technology (1955) in Ranchi are the most notable of these institutes. The Indo-Danish Tool Room at Jamshedpur, which was established in 1991 with the help of the Danish Government, as well as additional tool rooms and training centers in Ranchi and Dumka, have contributed to the economic development of Jharkhand.
Health Sector in Jharkhand
Despite the fact that Jharkhand has more than 500 medical centers, medical facilities outside the cities remain inadequate, despite the reforms. Allopathic (Western) and Ayurvedic (Old Indian) medical clinics serve the villages. Unani (Traditional Muslim Medicine) and Homeopathy are also available. Jamshedpur, Ranchi and Dhanbad all have large, well-equipped hospitals. Jamshedpur near Ranchi has special facilities for the treatment of TB, mental diseases and leprosy as well as cancer hospital.
Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC)
Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) is the most famous multifunctional power plant of Jharkhand. Not only in Jharkhand, but also in West Bengal, the company operates several thermal plants and hydroelectric dams; All the stations are connected to DVC grid, which serves both the urban and rural areas in both the states.
When did Bihar and Jharkhand separated?
History of Jharkhand: Before the arrival of the British in Chota Nagpur, the region was controlled by leaders of several indigenous groups. In 1765, the region was annexed by the British as part of Bihar. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, as the British established their control over the plains north of Jharkhand, a rebellion broke out against them in Chota Nagpur. The Ho rebellion (1820–27) and the Munda rebellion (1831–32) were the most important of these revolts.
From the time of British expansion to the beginning of the twenty-first century, the history of Jharkhand was intertwined with that of Bihar. After decades of growing discontent, especially among indigenous peoples, Chota Nagpur was carved out of Bihar on 15 November 2000 to form Jharkhand, India’s 28th state.
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